Traces of pre – Tymphian glaciation on Athamanion Massif, Pindos mountain chain, Greece


  • Leonidas Stamatopoulos University of Patras, Department of Geology, Patras Greece Author
  • Giovanni Palmentola Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Università di Bari, Italy Author



Pre-Tymphian Glaciations, Athamanion (Tzoumerka) massif, Pindos Chain, Greece


Pindos is the longest Hellenic mountain chain and as such, constitutes the backbone of the Greek peninsula. It takes part of the overall mountain system of western Balkans and it represents the continuation of the Dinaredes trending NNW to SSE in the Hellenic mainland. In this work, we present evidence of pre-Tymphian glaciation events on Athamanion Massif (Tzoumerka) in Epirus, northern Pindos. The first evidence for such pre-Tymphian events derives from the position of four moraine-ridge systems. Interpretation of such an emplacement may involve two possibilities: either the presence of lateral valleys on a higher level, such as that of Mangano and Fuskes peaks, which were occupied by an extensive and high glacial tongue that was able to abandon lateral moraines in that place, or that the particular moraines were abandoned in a landscape much different than todays with deep or even non-existent valleys. Since all altitude data reported from the last glaciations event are particularly low, as well as, average reported altitudes for amphitheatrical valleys (cirques) are also low, we deduce that those moraines were emplaced pre-Tymphian and subsequently were buried and protected by slope deposits. The moraines were probably emplaced before their valleys were incised. Moraine deposits were carried to their present position and they were subsequently solidified. These moraines have been detached from their feeder amphitheatrical valleys and occur presently as isolated ridges overlaid by cryoclastic breccias subjected to diagenesis. This observation suggests that some very important changes took place in the landscape-forming conditions: actually, the detritus of the cryoclastic breccias was derived from the escarpment of the Mangano and Fuskes peaks and it descended and was emplaced on the new slope formed by the pre-Tymphian lateral moraine. In any case, a relief inversion occurred. Probably this new configuration of relief, assisted by climatic and hydrologic conditions, did provide sufficient stability to lead towards the consolidation of the breccia formations.






Research and review papers

How to Cite

Stamatopoulos, L., & Palmentola, G. (2024). Traces of pre – Tymphian glaciation on Athamanion Massif, Pindos mountain chain, Greece. Geografia Fisica E Dinamica Quaternaria, 40(1), 97-102.

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